Insomnia is such a prevalent medical condition in this day and age of our fast-paced world. Juggling the hustle and bustle of everyday life, whether it is school, work, parenting, or family, can really do a number on our stress levels. Add a tinge of anxiety and depression, and this can be a recipe for some major sleepless nights.
Medications should never be our first choice when tackling insomnia, however. Most insomnia can be treated well with some behavioral changes, albeit not always easy to accomplish but quite worth the effort. The goal should primarily be to allow your body and mind to learn to fall asleep on its own, chemical free. And then to seek medication if all else fails.
But I know that the reality is that many seek over-the-counter sleep aids as a first step. Aside from antihistamines, melatonin seems to be a popular first choice amongst many.
But does it work? Is it safe? And what is the proper way to take it?
What Is Melatonin?
Melatonin is a hormone released by the pineal gland, a structure that sits tucked well inside the brain. This hormone regulates sleep patterns, referred to as our “circadian rhythm.” When night falls, melatonin levels rise almost ten-fold, commanding our bodies and mind to wind and eventually shut down in order to rejuvenate. In the daytime, when exposed to sunlight, melatonin levels are then suppressed. Hence, we then feel awake and most alert.
With age, this nighttime melatonin naturally diminishes. This is why older adults require less sleep and/or have more trouble catching their Zs. In addition, travelers with jet leg whose circadian rhythms go haywire are also another group of patients who can potentially benefit from taking melatonin. So can shift-workers who work at night and sleep during the daytime.
How to Take Melatonin
Melatonin is categorized as a “dietary supplement” and is available over-the-counter in the United States, without a prescription. It is therefore not regulated by the FDA, and its sale can include variable, non-recommended doses. Supra-high doses and versions with additives may have other potentially unwanted side effects.
The recommended dose of Melatonin should ideally mimic physiologic levels. This includes a dose anywhere from 0.1 to 0.5 mg one hour prior to bedtime. Anything more can be potentially unsafe. But market doses can range anywhere up to 10mg, increasing melatonin levels in the body up to 60-fold, so please beware.
Also, melatonin is recommended for up to 2 months of use. It is not intended for long-term use. The idea here is that once your circadian rhythm is reprogrammed, melatonin supplements should no longer be necessary.
Just because a chemical is categorized as a “dietary supplement,” it doesn’t mean it’s risk free. Most common side effects, especially at higher than recommended doses, include:
- Mood changes
- Daytime sleepiness
Those on Coumadin or other blood thinners should not take melatonin, as it can increase the risk of bleeding. Neither should those on hormonal contraceptives, which already increase melatonin on their own and can lead to supra-elevated melatonin levels when combined. Also, melatonin can increase blood sugar, and therefore can counteract the effects of glucose-lowering medications in diabetics.
Thus far, research in melatonin has not shown it to be effective in all types of insomnia—most benefit has been shown for those with jet lag insomnia and shift-worker syndrome. So this is one point to keep in mind if you decide to try it. If there is no change in symptoms after several weeks of use (and not longer than 2 months), then it may not be worth continuing.
And there you have it, melatonin in a nutshell. If you decide to give it shot, I recommend first discussing it with your physician to determine if it’s an appropriate treatment for you.
Please note that all content here is strictly for informational purposes only. This content does not substitute any medical advice, and does not replace any medical judgment or reasoning by your own personal health provider. Please always seek a licensed physician in your area regarding all health related questions and issues.